Author Topic: Over 20 Patents...  (Read 3994 times)

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Offline Kambogahuasca Panacea

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Over 20 Patents...
« on: May 09, 2013, 11:23:42 pm »
http://www.amazonlink.org/biopirataria/kampu.htm

Translation...

Quote
The sapo verde - phyllomedusa bicolor is the largest species of the genus of the family Hylidae, which occurs in the Amazon [1]. Can be found in nearly all the Amazon countries, such as Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil. Especially during the rainy season, under trees next to streams. Where croak all night, threatening rain the next day. But, at dawn, they are "harvested" to withdraw their skin secretion, to make the "vaccine sapo".

Traditional Use
Take the vaccine sapo is an ancient practice for medicinal purposes, widespread among the indigenous peoples of Brazil and Peru. The most popular purpose is "to take panema", ie, ward off bad luck in hunting and women.
There are variations in the rituals and names given to sapo green. In ancient history of Kaxinawá the sapo Kampu (name used by the people Kaxinawá), was the head of "nixi Pei," drink made with vine Banisteriopsis caapi (see also the case of Ayahuasca). Already Katukina never kill because they say may be bitten by a snake because its venom is removed from sapo Kambô. For the Ashaninka, when the sapo wapapatsi sings near the house, the owner has to pick it up, burn wrists and sleep. Very soon, you must prepare a porridge tight and hit the back of sapo, for it will drop the poison that is passed over the skin. However, the remedy will only result if the hunter follow the rules.
The vaccine sapo is considered a remedy for many ills by traditional valley Juruá, healing from yellowing to general pain. [2] Today, the vaccine sapo is also used by rubber tappers and has been applied by some healers in cities Cruzeiro do Sul / Rio Branco and AC / AC.
The healer keeps the secretion of a frog wooden spatula Applying small burns on the skin with a piece of vine-hot Applying secretion in quemaduras

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The effect of the vaccine sapo is short but very strong: "a strong wave of heat that rises through the body to the head. Dilation of blood vessels appears to cause a faster circulation of blood, leaving red in the face and then turns pale, low pressure, which can cause nausea, vomiting and / or diarrhea. Lasting about 15 minutes. Unpleasant feeling, which gradually returns to normal, and the person feels lighter, like I did a good cleaning, causing a greater disposition. "

International research
Scientific research has been conducted on the properties of the secretion phyllomedusa bicolor from the decade 80 or before. The first to "discover" the properties of the secretion to modern science, was a group of Italian researchers [3,4]. Frogs samples were taken from Peru for a researcher in the U.S. [5]. (Researcher who had previously researched and patented substances frog Epipedobates tricolor, traditionally used by the indigenous peoples of Ecuador. Too see more cases on the page).
Were also published research on the properties of the secretion by French and Israeli researchers [6]. More recently, the University of Kentucky (USA) is researching (and patenting) of the substances found in the secretion of sapo in collaboration with the pharmaceutical company Zymogenetics. [7]


Amazing results
The research revealed that the secretion of phyllomedusa bicolor contains a series of highly effective substances, the main ones being dermorphin and deltorphin, belonging to the group of peptides. These two peptides were unknown before surveys phyllomedusa bicolor. Dermorphin is a potent analgesic and deltorphin can be applied in the treatment of Ischemia. (A type of lack of blood flow and lack of oxygen, which can cause leakage). The secretion of substances sapo also have antibiotic properties and strengthening the immune system and also showed great power in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, AIDS, cancer, depression and other diseases.
Deltorphin and dermorphin today are being produced synthetically and laboratories can purchase them through online purchase. (Click here for a site selling)

PATENTS
(Patents containing the words "phyllomedusa bicolor" and / or deltorphin and / or dermorphin in title and / or description)
Recorded by

Registered
where

Date of publication

Title

Number
(Click the number for more information provided by esp @ cenet and USPTO)
KENTUCKY UNIV RES FOUND (U.S.) * WIPO - World 12/06/2003 Protection against ischemia and reperfusion injury


WO0222152
University of Kentucky Research Foundation (Lexington, KY) *
ZymoGenetics (Seattle, WA) * United States 30/04/2002 Method for treating cytokine mediated hepatic injury
U.S. 6,380,164
University of Kentucky Research Foundation (Lexington, KY) *
ZymoGenetics (Seattle, WA) * United States 11/25/2001 Method for treating ischemia
U.S. 6,294,519
KENTUCKY UNIV RES FOUND (U.S.) * WIPO - World 11/11/1999 METHOD FOR TREATING Ischemia

WO9956766
KENTUCKY UNIV RES FOUND (U.S.) * WIPO - World 11/11/1999 METHOD FOR TREATING HEPATIC INJURY Cytokine Mediated

WO9956766
Inventors: BISHOP PAUL D (U.S.); KINDY MARK S (U.S.); OELTGEN PETER R (U.S.); SANCHEZ JUAN A (U.S.) * WIPO - World 09/05/2002 USE OF D-LEU DELTORPHIN FOR PROTECTION AGAINST AND Ischemia Reperfusion INJURY

WO0230450
Mor, Amram (Jerusalem, IL) * United States 27/09/2002 Peptides for the activation of the immune system in humans and animals

U.S. 6,440,690
ASTRA AB (SE) * United States 11/02/1997 Dermorphin analogs having pharmacological activity


US5602100
IAF BIOCHEM INT (CA) * European Union
United States 10/01/1990 Dermorphin analogs, Their methods of preparation, pharmaceutical compositions, and methods of therapeutic treatment using the same.

EP0350221
US5312899
DAINIPPON PHARMACEUT CO LTD * Japan 17/05/1989 DERMORPHIN-RELATED PEPTIDE

JP1125399

Concern of traditional
There is growing concern the peoples of the forest with the use of knowledge and biological resources, they traditionally use by large companies. This concern was articulated, among others, at the Second Meeting of the Inter Forest Peoples Valley Juruá Acreano in April / May 2003. The concern with patenting the vaccine sapo was mainly instigated with a matter of Globo Reporter, aired on 02/2002. From now, the region's indigenous representatives request that this case be investigated.
If you have information that can help us in this research, please send to info@amazonlink.org


Bibliography:

    SOUZA, Moses B. Diversity of Amphibians in Environmental Conservation: Extractive Reserve of the Upper Juruá (REAJ) and Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (PNSD), Acre - Brazil - UNESP-Rio Claro, SP. 2003, p.56-57. (PhD thesis).
    SOUZA, Moses B. et al. Amphibians. In: CUNHA, M. C. the; ALMEIDA, M. B. (Eds.). Forest Encyclopedia: The High Juruá: Practices and Knowledge of Populations, São Paulo - SP., Companhia das Letras, 2002, p.608-610.
    Erspamer, V., Melchiorri, P., Falconieri-Erspamer, G., Negri, L., Corsi, R., Severini, C., Barra, D., Simmaco, M. and Kreil, G. (1989) "Deltorphins: A family of naturally occurring peptides with high affinity and selectivity of d opioid binding sites," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA, 86, 5188-5192.
    Erspamer, Vittorio et al., 1993, Pharmacological Studies of 'Frog' from the Frog Phyllomedusa bicolor Skin: A Drug Used by the Peruvian Indians in Matses Hunting Shamanic Practices, Toxicon, 31:1099-1111.
    Daly, J. W. et al. "Frog Secretions and Hunting Magic in the upper Amazon: Identification of a peptide That Interacts with an Adenosine Receptor," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89: 10960-10963, 1992.
    Pierre Nicolas and Amram Mor, Peptides Weapons Against the Microorganisms in the Chemical Defense System of Vertebrates Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 1995 Vol 49: 277-304
    Sigg D, Coles JA, Oeltgen PA, and PA Iazzo. Role of Delta-Opioid Receptor Agonists on Infarct Size Reduction in Swine. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 282: H1953-H1960, 2002

* We do not know whether or to what extent the term biopiracy applies to each of the holders of patents and trademarks mentioned herein. But consider questionable the practice of patenting plants and cultivars are traditionally used by Amazonian communities and record their names as trademarks and invite the holders of these rights are justified through a comment.
The Amazonlink.org turn is not responsible for any errors or omissions in the information provided in this site.

Offline caiano

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Re: Over 20 Patents...
« Reply #1 on: May 10, 2013, 04:07:47 pm »
Pirates  :o