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Exercise / Bodybuilding / Re: Increasing Human Growth Hormone
« Last post by ―λlτεrηιτγ- on February 06, 2020, 04:01:10 pm »
Quote
Glutamine and glutamate with proline, histidine, arginine and ornithine, comprise 25% of the dietary amino acid intake and constitute the "glutamate family" of amino acids, which are disposed of through conversion to glutamate. Although glutamine has been classified as a nonessential amino acid, in major trauma, major surgery, sepsis, bone marrow transplantation, intense chemotherapy and radiotherapy, when its consumption exceeds its synthesis, it becomes a conditionally essential amino acid. In mammals the physiological levels of glutamine is 650 micromol/l and it is one of the most important substrate for ammoniagenesis in the gut and in the kidney due to its important role in the regulation of acid-base homeostasis. In cells, glutamine is a key link between carbon metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins and plays an important role in the growth of fibroblasts, lymphocytes and enterocytes. It improves nitrogen balance and preserves the concentration of glutamine in skeletal muscle. Deamidation of glutamine via glutaminase produces glutamate a precursor of gamma-amino butyric acid, a neurotransmission inhibitor. L-Glutamic acid is a ubiquitous amino acid present in many foods either in free form or in peptides and proteins. Animal protein may contain from 11 to 22% and plants protein as much as 40% glutamate by weight. The sodium salt of glutamic acid is added to several foods to enhance flavor. L-Glutamate is the most abundant free amino acid in brain and it is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system. Most free L-glutamic acid in brain is derived from local synthesis from L-glutamine and Kreb's cycle intermediates. It clearly plays an important role in neuronal differentiation, migration and survival in the developing brain via facilitated Ca++ transport. Glutamate also plays a critical role in synaptic maintenance and plasticity. It contributes to learning and memory through use-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy and plays a role in the formation and function of the cytoskeleton. Glutamine via glutamate is converted to alpha-ketoglutarate, an integral component of the citric acid cycle. It is a component of the antioxidant glutathione and of the polyglutamated folic acid. The cyclization of glutamate produces proline, an amino acid important for synthesis of collagen and connective tissue. Our aim here is to review on some amino acids with high functional priority such as glutamine and to define their effective activity in human health and pathologies.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12481981
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Forum Advertisements / Re: QUALITY IBOGA ROOTBARKS.
« Last post by Kamamuse on January 19, 2020, 11:59:57 pm »
I just knew it was this. If anyone has a question I can answer it. Maybe I will know some things.
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General Discussion / Re: Are you having to talk to friends?
« Last post by Kamamuse on January 19, 2020, 11:59:15 pm »
I know it's too hard to understand. But the knowledge in the body.
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Supplements / Lithium
« Last post by ―λlτεrηιτγ- on January 19, 2020, 06:27:46 pm »
Oxidative metabolism
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Evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction is present in patients with bipolar disorder.[72] Oxidative stress and reduced levels of anti-oxidants (such as glutathione) lead to cell death. Lithium may protect against oxidative stress by up-regulating complex I and II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain.

Dopamine and G-protein coupling
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During mania, there is an increase in neurotransmission of dopamine that causes a secondary homeostatic down-regulation, resulting in decreased neurotransmission of dopamine, which can cause depression.[72] Additionally, the post-synaptic actions of dopamine are mediated through G-protein coupled receptors. Once dopamine is coupled to the G-protein receptors, it stimulates other secondary messenger systems that modulate neurotransmission. Studies found that in autopsies (which do not necessarily reflect living people), people with bipolar disorder had increased G-protein coupling compared to people without bipolar disorder.[72] Lithium treatment alters the function of certain subunits of the dopamine associated G-protein, which may be part of its mechanism of action.

Glutamate and NMDA receptors
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Glutamate levels are observed to be elevated during mania. Lithium is thought to provide long-term mood stabilization and have anti-manic properties by modulating glutamate levels.[72] It is proposed that lithium competes with magnesium for binding to NMDA glutamate receptor, increasing the availability of glutamate in post-synaptic neurons.[72] The NMDA receptor is also affected by other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. Effects observed appear exclusive to lithium and have not been observed by other monovalent ions such as rubidium and caesium.

GABA receptors
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GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission.[72] It was found that patients with bipolar disorder had lower GABA levels, which results in excitotoxicity and can cause apoptosis (cell loss). Lithium has been shown to increase the level of GABA in plasma and cerebral spinal fluid.[74] Lithium counteracts these degrading processes by decreasing pro-apoptotic proteins and stimulating release of neuroprotective proteins.[72] Lithium's regulation of both excitatory dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems through GABA may play a role in its mood stabilizing effects.

Cyclic AMP secondary messengers
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Lithium's therapeutic effects are thought to be partially attributable to its interactions with several signal transduction mechanisms.[76][77] The cyclic AMP secondary messenger system is shown to be modulated by lithium. Lithium was found to increase the basal levels of cyclic AMP but impair receptor coupled stimulation of cyclic AMP production.[72] It is hypothesized that the dual effects of lithium are due to the inhibition of G-proteins that mediate cyclic AMP production.[72] Over a long period of lithium treatment, cyclic AMP and adenylate cyclase levels are further changed by gene transcription factors.

Inositol depletion hypothesis
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Lithium treatment has been found to inhibit the enzyme inositol monophosphatase, involved in degrading inositol monophosphate to inositol required in PIP2 synthesis. This leads to lower levels of inositol triphosphate, created by decomposition of PIP2.[78] This effect has been suggested to be further enhanced with an inositol triphosphate reuptake inhibitor. Inositol disruptions have been linked to memory impairment and depression. It is known with good certainty that signals from the receptors coupled to the phosphoinositide signal transduction is affected by lithium.[79] myo-inositol is also regulated by the high affinity sodium mI transport system (SMIT). Lithium is hypothesized to inhibit mI entering the cells and mitigating the function of SMIT.[72] Reductions of cellular levels of myo-inositol results in the inhibition of the phosphoinositide cycle.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithium_(medication)#Glutamate_and_NMDA_receptors
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General Discussion / Kambo.me URL working again.
« Last post by ―λlτεrηιτγ- on January 19, 2020, 05:18:30 pm »
Kambo.me URL is working again.
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Video / Desert Seas
« Last post by ―λlτεrηιτγ- on January 18, 2020, 02:04:10 am »
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Video / Mucky Secrets (Documentary)
« Last post by ―λlτεrηιτγ- on January 18, 2020, 02:01:20 am »
Let's bring in some nature documentaries.

Mucky Secrets (Documentary)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJMZ6reOB0E
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Forum Advertisements / Tabernanthe Iboga(Sacred Wood or The Sacrament ).
« Last post by mabunza on January 13, 2020, 06:35:42 am »
Iboga is a West African Shrub that is it found only in these areas.
Iboga is used to cure and to seek the paths for those who feel lost and alone.
It is a sacrament in the Bwiti culture and is part of their religion because of its supreme deeds.
Iboga is where Ibogaine is extracted from and is used to treat heroin addiction. Unlike any medicine ,
Iboga is dangerous when consumed in greater amounts.
Iboga also helps to release us from our stress and depressions due to its unique properties.
Iboga has proven to be very effective in so many treatments and so many who have used the sacred plant do
know its worth.
Iboga is a miracle tree.
Iboga can show you the path to take in life just when you feel all other lights are gone.
This way it guides you and enlightens you on which path to take.
If you wish to know more about this wonderful shrub or to buy this natural medicine please don't hesitate to reach out to us via this email address:
africanshrubs.info@gmail.com
                     Or
via WhatsApp Number: +237693300073
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Dry Fasting / Re: Deep waters
« Last post by ―λlτεrηιτγ- on January 09, 2020, 02:25:50 pm »
Do you still shower bath regularly while dry fasting? Or avoid it till allowing yourself to take in water again?


One thing that comes to mind is to add a note of caution to those that might have kidney issues.


"In patients with stage 3 or higher CKD, Ramadan fasting during the summer months was associated with worsening of renal function. Clinicians need to warn CKD patients against Ramadan fasting."

"During Ramadan, Muslims must abstain from eating or drinking from dawn to sunset every day for a whole month." ... "the duration of fasting varies from 12-18 hours" ... "Although there is an exemption from fasting provided to sick people, many of these patients wish to fast. Physicians in Muslim countries are frequently consulted by their patients regarding the effects of fasting on their health, including patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although many studies have shown that fasting during Ramadan has no adverse effect on healthy people, the few studies that have been conducted on the effect of Ramadan in patients with CKD have found inconsistent results. Moreover, some of these studies were conducted during the winter season, and others were conducted during the summer time. Therefore, we carried out this study on the effect of Ramadan fasting on worsening of renal function (WRF) in patients with more advance CKD during the period in summer with the longest days."

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5278065/
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